Some Major Stylistic Periods of Medieval Art and Architecture

                                                                                 Churches, Abbeys, Cathedrals, Basilicas and Monasteries.


England; 1. Early Christian                     (c500-600)                       archway of St. Piran's oratory.
              2. Anglo-Saxon                       (c450-1066)                     archway of Odda's chapel, dogtooth and smallsquare windows 1 2 ([])and archways (detail) (+) of
                                                                                                      St. Mary's, Deerhurst, arcading details 1 2 3 4, south front, inner doorways 1 2, exterior archway
                                                                                                      and sculpture in Saint Laurence, Bradford on Avon, (o), Hedda stone, Peterborough, windows
                                                                                                      and doorway of Earl's Barton church and windows of Brixworth church, Northamptonshire,
                                                                                                      font of St. Mary's, Luppitt, window (detail) of St. Bueno's church, window of Wembury
                                                                                                      church, Devon, ([][][]), tower of St. Margaret's church, Bagendon, tower of St. Peter's church,
                                                                                                      Barton-upon-Humber, tower (random) and archway of St. Michael's church, Duntisbourne
                                                                                                      Rouse, interior of Escomb church, Durham, interior of St. Mary's church, Reculver, Kent,
                                                                                                      tower of St. Paul's monastery, Jarrow, round tower of Burnham Deepdale church, Norfolk,
                                                                                                      doorway of St. James the Great church, Coln St. Dennis, doorway, westwork, archway and
                                                                                                      spandrel of St. Michael and All Angels, Ledbury, tower of Tewkesbury Abbey,
                                                                                                      church house buildings of Gloucester Cathedral 1 2, doorway of  St. Mary's Priory church,
                                                                                                      Monmouth, saddleback tower and doorway of St. Mary's church, Syde, (ooo),  tower of St. Oswalds church,
                                                                                                      Lassington, tower of St. Swithuns church, Brookthorpe, tower of St Margaret's church, Bagendon,
                                                                                                      carving at the Holy Rood church, Daglingworth, (oo), tower of St. Peter's church,
                                                                                                      Duntisbourne Abbots, tower and window of St. Michael's church, Duntisbourne Rouse, north
                                                                                                      doorway, south doorway (detail) and arch of St. Mary's, Great Washbourne, (+++), cross at
                                                                                                      Mylor parish church, (++++), jambs 1 2 3 4, arches 1 2, base block and pilaster strip (detail) of
                                                                                                      St. Lawrence church, Coln Rogers, north doorway (detail) of St. Andrew's church, Brewardine,
                                                                                                      (+++++), doorway and cross shaft of St. Andrew's church, Cold Aston, (++++++), splay window
                                                                                                       of St. Peter's church, Stanway, archform of St. Peter's church, Cornwell, archform and smallsqaure
                                                                                                       window frames 1 2 of St. David's church, Muchdewchurch, ([][]), cross shaft (detail) at All Saints
                                                                                                       church, Childwall. .
               3. Celtic                                 (c500-1150)                      Font details 1 and 2 of St. Mary Magdelene church, Stoke Canon, cross at St. John's church,
                                                                                                       Morwenstow, cross and pillar (detail) of Mylor Parish church.
               4. Romanesque                      (c1100-1200)                    archway near Siverton village, doorway of St. Michael and All Angels church, Meeth, exterior
                                                                                                       columns 1 2 and interior columns 1 2 of the Priory church, Leominster, left archway columns 1 2 ,
                                                                                                       right archway columns 1 2, central archway columns 1 2 and dragon form of Shobdon church, see
               5. Norman                             (c1066-1180)                    west door and dragon form of St. Michael and All Angels, Gallilee Chapel, Durham Cathedral,
                                                                                                      north door of Stanley Pontlarge church, pillars of  Pershore Abbey,
                                                                                                      vault of  Durham Cathedral, nave of Tewkesbury Abbey, crossing vault of
                                                                                                      Worcester Cathedral, doorway of Eckington church, doorway of Guiting Power church,
                                                                                                      doorway(s) of Withington church, upper archway of Bibury church,  nave (detail) and doorway
                                                                                                      of Leominster church, doorway of English Bicknor, doorway, archwayrib vault, portal ,capitals
                                                                                                      1 2 3 4 5 with dragonforms 1 2 of St. Giles, Bredon, (*), doorway of Westwell church, corner capitals
                                                                                                      1 2 3 4 of Coln St. Denis church, doorway of Coln St. Aldwyns church, doorway of Ledbury
                                                                                                      church, north wall of Rock church, arch, westwork (**) and choir arcades of Hereford
                                                                                                      cathedral, corner capital, font, vault, corner capitals 1 2vault and tower of Holy Cross
                                                                                                      church, Avening,  corner capital of  St. John the Baptist's church, Hatherleigh, nave of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                      Kempley, doorway of Kilpeck church, doorway of Lincoln cathedral, corner butresses of
                                                                                                      Chipping Campden church, corner capital of Garway church, capital, archway and dragon form
                                                                                                      (++) of Tredington church, nave and pillars of Peterborough cathedral, corner capitals and archway
                                                                                                      of Iffley church, archway of St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, pillar, inner and outer archways of
                                                                                                       Morwenstow church (!), nave and capital of Gloucester cathedral, doorway of St. Mary's, Gloucester,
                                                                                                       window of Boddington church, windows  of  St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers, 1 2
                                                                                                       (interior view) 3 (linear), 3(cistercian,cusp), 4(cusp), (interior view)  5 (geometric, random),
                                                                                                       windows of St. Mary's church, Luppitt, 1 2 (linear) 3 (cusp), doorway of Kilkhampton church,
                                                                                                       window (interior view) (linear) of Doddisombleigh church, window (cusp) of St. Petroc's,
                                                                                                       Lydford, window (linear) of St. Michael de la Rupe church, Brentor, windows, 1 (cusp,random)
                                                                                                       2 (linear) of Saint Werburgh's church, Wembury, window (geometric, random) of Saint Winifred's
                                                                                                       church, Branscombe, windows 1 2 (cusp) 3 (random) of St. Mary's church, Rewe, windows
                                                                                                       1(cusp) 2 (cusp, cistercian) of St. Thomas's church, Thorverton, window (cusp) of St. Michael's,
                                                                                                       Cadbury, tower of St. Paul de Leon church, Staverton, towers of St. Nonna's church, Bradstone,
                                                                                                       and St. Bridget's church, Bridestowe,  window (linear) and font of Holy Trinity, Drewsteignton,
                                                                                                       arch scroll (detail) of St. Petroc's, Inwardleigh,  font and doorway (s) of St. Nonna's church, Alturnun,
                                                                                                       font of St. Mary the Virgin, Bratton Clovelly, tower of  St. German's church, Germansweek, tower
                                                                                                       of St. Michael's church, Meeth, windows, doorways (1), (2) , archways, corner capitals (1), (2),
                                                                                                       column, stringcourse and cross rib vaulting of St. German's church, St. German, doorway and
                                                                                                       buttressing of  St. Peter's, Revelstoke, archway of St.Peter's church, Tiverton, window (linear) of
                                                                                                       St. Mary's church, Hemyock, font and piscina of St. Mary's church, Cheriton Bishop, corner
                                                                                                       capitals 1 2 3 4 of Holy Cross church, Crediton, font (detail) of St. Michael and all Angels, Exeter,
                                                                                                      doorways 1 2 and typanum of St. John the Baptist church and windows of the Bishop's Palace,
                                                                                                      Bishopsteignton, font of All Saint's church, Eggesford, archway details 1 2 of St. Mary's church,
                                                                                                      High Bickington,  font and window of St. Pancras's church, Exeter, doorway and corner capital
                                                                                                      of All Saints church, North Cerney, font details 1, 2, 3, 4 of St. Peter's church, Rendcomb,
                                                                                                      doorway with diaper pattern, volute capitalfont details 1 2 3 (!!!!) of St. Peter's church, Southrop,
                                                                                                      archway and tower of Temple church, Temple, Cornwall, archway (detail), corner capitals 1, 2 and
                                                                                                      window (linear) of St. Michael's church, Shebbear, corner capitals 1 2 of St. Michael's church,
                                                                                                      Duntisbourne Rouse, archway , pillars 1, 2 and window (linear)of St. Mary's church, Great Barrington,
                                                                                                      archway and corner capitals 1 2 of St. Peters church, Little Barrington, font details 1 2 3 4 and piscina
                                                                                                      of St.Michael's church, Spreyton, font of St. Michael and All Angels church, Frithelstock,  archway
                                                                                                      details 1 2 of St. Benedict's church, Buckland Brewer, archway details 1 2 and font of All Saints church,
                                                                                                      Clovelly, font of St. Matthew's church, Butterleigh, archway details 1 2 of St. James' church, Parkham,
                                                                                                      archway details 1 2 of All Hallows church, Woolfardisworthy, font of All Saints church, Merton,
                                                                                                      arch fragment of St. Michael's church, Dowdeswell, archway of St.Mary's church, East Worlington,
                                                                                                      archway details 1 2 of St. Giles's church, Ashleigh,  entrance archway details 1 2 3chancel archway
                                                                                                      details 1 2 3 and  window (exterior view) of St. Mary's church, Lower Swell, archway details 1 2 of
                                                                                                      St. Mary's, church, Upper Swell, archway (detail), chancel boss, chancel pillar with dragon form,
                                                                                                      capital and carvings 1 2 of Elkstone church, (##), westwork ,(**),of Tewkesbury abbey, trefoil capital
                                                                                                      of Winchester Cathedral, doorway of St. Mary's Priory church, Monmouth, doorway and pillars of St.
                                                                                                      Swithun's church, Leonard Stanley, cushion capitals 1 2 of Gloucester Cathedral crypt, (****),
                                                                                                      tympanum and corner capital of St. Stephen's church, Moreton Valence, corner capitals of Hereford
                                                                                                      cathedral, corner capital, tympanum of St. Mary's church, Byton (*****), tympanum of St. Nicholas'
                                                                                                      church, Gloucester, tympanum of Shobdon church, archway and column of the Priory church, Leominster,
                                                                                                      (******), butresses of St. Mary's, Little Washourne, font at St. Nectan's church, Stoke, doorway
                                                                                                      (detail) and cross of  Mylor parish church, (********), capitalarchway and column of St. Mary's
                                                                                                      church,Great Barrington, doorway, moulding and tympanum of St. Peter's church, Little Barrington,
                                                                                                      tympanum (detail) of St. Andrew's church, Brewardine, doorway, tympanum and corner capital
                                                                                                      of St. Andrew's church, Cold Aston, stars and capital fragments of St. Margaret's church, Alderton,
                                                                                                      (*********), column and arches of Evesham Abbey, arch of St. Michael's church, Stanton, arches
                                                                                                      1 2 and pillars of St. Eadburgha's church, Broadway, cluster capital of St. Peter's church, Stanway,
                                                                                                      arcade and scallop capital  of St. Bartholomew's church, Aldsworth, cushion capitals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
                                                                                                      of Worcester Cathedral, (**********), cushion , volute, oblong capitals and gravestones 1 2 3 at
                                                                                                      St. John the Baptist church, Great Rissington, capitals 1 2 and archform of St. Peter's church, Cornwell,
                                                                                                      font and pillar of St. Leonard's church, Bledington, clustered column and arch of St. David's church,
                                                                                                      Much Dewchurch, arch and column of St. James the Great church, Stoke Orchard, archforms 1 2 3
                                                                                                      of Glastonbury Abbey, (***********), archway and capital of the Holy Rood church, Daglingworth,
                                                                                                      (************), capital at All Saints church, Childwall,  interlace archfoms at Winchester Cathedral.
               6. Lancet (Early English)          (c1180-1275)                  Wells Cathedral, nave of Lincoln Cathedral, abbeys of BylandRievaulx and Whitby in
                                                                                            .         Yorkshire, lancet windows of York Cathedral, nave and lancet windows of Salisbury
                                                                                                      cathedral, piscina in  Saint  Dubricius's, Porlock, arcade and colonettes of 
                                                                                                      Worcester Cathedral, windows of  Sevenhampton church, windows of Castle Combe
                                                                                                      church, outbuilding of Buckland abbey, lancet window of St. Andrew's church, Bere Ferrers,
                                                                                                       window of Tintagel church, window of St. Swithuns church, Cornwall, window of St.Mary's, Luppitt,
                                                                                                       window of St. Petroc's church, Lydford, window of de la Rupe church, window of St. Michael's,
                                                                                                       Cadbury, windows 1 2 (trefoil) of St. Mary's church, Poltimore, buttresses 1 2 (trefoil) of St. Mary's,
                                                                                                       Bickleigh, doorway of St. John the Baptist Church, Bere Regis, Dorset, window (s) and arcade  of
                                                                                                       Exeter Cathedral, St. John the Baptist's church, Hatherleigh, font of St. Peter's church, Southrop,
                                                                                                       window and piscina, of St. Mary's church, Great Washbourne, font and piscinas 1 2 of St. Margaret
                                                                                                       of Antioch church , Alderton, doorway of King Charles the Martyr's church, Falmouth, piscinas of
                                                                                                       St. Mary's church, Silverton, windows of St. Michael and All Angels church, Frithelstock, piscina of
                                                                                                       St. Matthew's church, Butterleigh, font of St. Michael and All Angels church, Meeth, font of All
                                                                                                       Hallows church, Woolfardisworthy, lower archway of St. Mary's church, Bibury, arches 1 2 of Hailes
                                                                                                       Abbey, buttress of Hereford Cathedral, trefoil plate tracery of Winchester Cathedral, lancet window of
                                                                                                       St. George's church, Brisop, lancet windows 1 2 3 of Salisbury Cathedral, lancet window of Boyton church,
                                                                                                       arch form of Hartland Abbey (!!), arch and tower of St. Nectan's church, Stoke, arches 1 2 (detail), pillar,
                                                                                                       lancet windows 1 2 and circles of Blackfriars Abbey, Gloucester, (!!!), trefoil headed window of St. Giles,
                                                                                                       Bredon, arches, trefoil and lancet windows of St. Michael's church, Stanton, trefoil archforms of Glastonbury
                                                                                                       Abbey, (**********).
               7. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)                  Choir of Lincoln Cathedral, chapterhouse of Westminster Abbey, cloister of Salisbury cathedral, window
                                                                                                      detail of Boyton church, arch detail of Sevenhampton church, cloister window of Exeter cathedral, window
                                                                                                      of St. Michael's, Buckland, cloister of Gloucester cathedral, archform and arch detail of St. Andrew's church,
                                                                                                      Cullompton, window of St. Mary's, Rewe, window (interior view)of St.Petroc's church, Lydford, window of
                                                                                                      St. Mary's church, Huxham, Devon, window (interior view) of St. Mary's, Poltimore, windows 1 2 3 4 5 of St.
                                                                                                      Peter's church, Tiverton, window of St. Ida the Green , Ide,  window of  St. Mary's, Upton Hellions, balustrade
                                                                                                      and turret of St. John the Baptist church, Plymtree, font (random) of St.Mary's church, Great Washbourne, font
                                                                                                      (random) of St. Mary's church, Black Torrington, balustrade of  King Charles the Martyr's church, Falmouth,
                                                                                                      balustrade of St. Michael and All Angels church, Frithelstock, fragment at Hailes Abbey, quatrefoils at Gloucester
                                                                                                      Cathedral, window and archway of St. Mary's Church, Ross-on-Wye, window of St. Lawrence church, Stroud,
                                                                                                      (plan), tympanum at Hartland Abbey, (*******), Agnus Dei fragment of Glastonbury Abbey,
               8. Linear                                  (c1280-1300)                  St. Etheldreda's church window, London, Merton College Chapel east and north windows, (#),  Oxford,
                                                                                                      Buckland Abbey, cloister window (s) of Exeter cathedral, Bere Ferrers church window (interior view) (detail),
                                                                                                      window of St. Nonna's church, Altarnun.
               9. Cusp                                    (c1280)                           window (s), (detail), of Gulval church, Penzance.  St. Ives church, Cornwall, window of Kilkhampton
                                                                                                      church, doorway (detail) of St. Mary's, Stoke Cannon, window of St. Mary's church, Silverton
                                                                                                      (interior view), windows 1 2 of St. John's church, Broadclyst, window of St. Mary's church, Poltimore,
                                                                                                       window (detail) (interior view) of St. Mary's church, Bickleigh, windows 1 2 of St. Mary's church, Upton
                                                                                                       Pyne, window of St. John the Baptist church, Netherexe, doorway of St. Andrew's church, Coln Rogers.
               10. Response to Rayonnant        (c1280-1300)                  Boyton Church rose window , Wiltshire, St. Mary's window, Cheltenham, window of  St. Peter's church,
                                                                                                        Bramford Speke.
               11. Curvilinear                           (c1275-1380)                   archform at All Saints church, Childwall.
               12. Perpendicular                       (c1380-1520)                  East window, cloister window(s), arcade wall and vault of Gloucester cathedral, east window of
                                                                                                        St. Mary's, Frampton on Severn,  window of St. Andrew's church, Moretonhampstead,
                                                                                                        font of St. Michael's church, Dowdeswell, spade design, fan and spade vaulting (detail) of St. Peter's church,
                                                                                                        Winchcombe, outbuilding of Sudeley Castle, fan vaulting, archway and window of St. John the Baptist church,
                                                                                                        Cirencester, outbuilding at Bourton Hill,  spade design and window of St. Mary's church, Painswick, spade
                                                                                                        and shield design at Greyfriars church, Gloucester, fan vaulting of Beverston chapel, windows 1 2 3 of  St.
                                                                                                        Leonard's church, Bledington, window and buttress of St. Edward's church, Stow on the Wold, fan vaulting
                                                                                                        of St. Andrew's church, Cullumpton.
 Wales;     1.  Norman                              (c1066-1180)                  Chevron pattern of St. Mary's church, Monmouth, drum pillar of Dore Abbey, volute capitals 1 2 3 and
                                                                                                        windows 1 2 3 of Llanthony Priory, (\\\\), green man and dragon form at Brecon Cathedral, (\\\\\).
                2.  Romanesque                      (c1066-1180)                   Windows, 1 2, and doorways,  1 2 of St. Thomas's church, Monmouth.
                3.  Lancet                                (c1180-1275)                  Nave (arch detail) of Tintern Abbey, oculus of Llanthony Priory, lancet windows and
                                                                                                        facade of Abbey Dore, (\\).
                4. Response to Geometric        (c1240-1280)                  Clearstorey windows of Tintern Abbey, font, nave, arches and pillar of St. Nicholas' church, Grosmont,
                                                                                                       capitals 1 2 of Llanthony Priory, columns, bosses 1 2 and archforms of Brecon Cathedral, (\\\).
                5. Linear                                  (c1280-1300)                  Brecon Cathedral window.

Ireland      1. Anglo-Saxon                       (c850-1067)                    round tower of Rock of Cashel,  round tower details at Monasterboice, round tower and herringbone
                                                                                                       archform at St. Finian's church, Clonmacnoise, rectangular forms at McCarthy's round tower,
                                                                                                       Clonmacnoise, herringbone and round tower of Glendalough, round tower of Iniscealtra, round tower
                                                                                                       of Kilmacduagh, round tower at Scattery Island, round tower of Kells, round tower of Clones,
                                                                                                       round tower (detail) of Kildare, triangular roof form, quadrilateral and dogtooth windows at St. Doulagh's
                 (possibly with later Anglo-Norman features)                    church, splay window at St Ciaran's church, Glendalough.
                2. Anglo-Norman                    (c1067-1150)                   round tower at Devenish Island, round tower of Ardmore, conic top of St. Finian's  round tower,
                                                                                                        Clonmacnoise, round tower at Kilossy.
                3. Lancet                                 (c1180-1275)                   Lancet windows of Christchurch Cathedral, Dublin, vault of Timoleague Abbey.
                4. Perpendicular                       (c1380-1520)                   Westwork battlements of Down Cathedral, (\\\\\\\).


Scotland  1. Lancet                                 (c1180-1275)                  Crypt , exterior walkways 1 2 and lancet windows of St. Kentgern's Cathedral, Glasgow.
               2. Perpendicular                       (c1380-1520)                  spade design at Rosslyn chapel, Roslin, (\\\\\\\\\).

France    1. Norman                                (c1010-1120)                  corner tower of Jumieges Abbey, Normandy, ribbed vault of Saint Etienne Abbey, Caen, pointed
                                                                                                       archforms of the Basilica of Paray-le-Monial, Burgundy, (\\\\\\).
Sweden:  1. Romanesque                        (c1100-1250)                  Apse and crypt pillars of Lund cathedral
               2. Regional Gothic                    (c1250-1400)                 Storkyran interior, Stockholm    

Gotland;  1. Romanesque                        (c1100-1250)                  Tower of St. Lars, St. Drottens in Visby, Gotland, cloister pavement in Roma, Gotland.
  (\)         2. Response to Geometric/       (c1200-1300)                 Vaultdoorway (cusp) and window (cusp) of Helge And, crossing and doorway of St. Lars, St. Katarina
                   English                                                                         rose window of St. Nicolaus, St. Clemensdefensive walls in Visby, Gotland.          
               3. Regional Gothic                    (c1250-1400)                 Doorway(s) and window of Tofta, doorway and window of Masterby, more doorway(s) of Bro
                                                                                                      churches in Gotland

Denmark; 1. Romanesque                       (c1100-1200)                 Doorway of Osterlars church, Ostermarie church, Bornholm, crypt of Viborg cathedral,
                                                                                                     doorway and pillar of Ribe cathedral, doorway of Aalborg church, crypt of Arhus cathedral,
                                                                                                     Roskilde cathedral
                2. Norman                              (c1100-1180)                 Stege church, doorway of Helsingborg churchpillar of Absalon's church, Copenhagen
                3. Response to English             (c1200-1300)                Sakskobing church
                4. Response to Lancet             (c1200-1300)                Vejle church
                5. Response to Cistercian        (c1250-1300)                 Bornholm round churches of Osterlars, OlskerNyker and Nylars.
                6. Regional Gothic                   (c1350)                          Frescoes of Osterlars ( 1 2 3 ), Nyker (1 2 3) and Nylars ( 1 2 3 ), Bornholm.
                7. Regional Scandinavian         (c1250-1400)                 Elmelund church, Svendborg church, Nakskov church, Odense cathedral, Vor Frue Kirke,
                                                                                                     Odense, St. Olav's church, Faroe Islands, (***).
Norway;   1. Norman                              (c1100-1180)                Cathedral of St. Halvard, Royal Chapel of St. Mary's, (ambient), Oslo, Archbishop's Palace
                                                                                                     and archway of the cathedral in Trondheim, archway and pillar of Stavanger cathedral doorway (detail)
                                                                                                     of  St. Paul's church, Bergen.
                 2. Cistercian                           (c1150)                          Hovedoy cloister , Oslo
                 3. Romanesque                       (c1100-1200)                Doorway (detail) and interior (1 2) of  St. Mary's Church, Bergen, doorway (interior) of Varhaug church, Stavanger.
                 4. Response to English            (c1200-1300)                Trondheim Cathedral nave, Apostle's church, Bergen

Sicily;        1. Norman                              (c1070-1180)                Pavement of  San Cataldo church, Pavement of Capella Palatina in Palazzo dei Normanni,
                                                                                                     Choir Pavements of Monreale Cathedral.

Poland      1.Response to Geometric         (c1280-)                         St. Anne's chapel , Malbork Castle.
                 2.Response to Scandinavian     (c1350)                          St. Mary's church, Gdansk.
Belgium     1. Romanesque                        (c1134-1139)                 Columns and  doorway of St. Basil's chapel, Bruges.  
                 2. Regional Gothic                   (c1250-1400)                 Vault of St. Michael's church, St. Nicholas's church, Ghent. 
Austria      1. Romanesque                        (c1140-1200)                 Crypt of Gurk Cathedral.

(o)            According to  M. Hearn, the sculpture is influenced by Carolingian designs, see also (!!!!) here. In the exterior archway, the reveal is recessed
                 from the respond, a feature which Clapham in "English Romanesque Architecture before the Conquest" claims are more common in Anglo-Saxon
                 churches of the north of England. The arcading exhibits regular bands with both 3 attached shafts, which Clapham mentions are used at Worth,
                 Clayton and Wittering, and 1 attached shaft, also used at Worth, and at Wing, in the arch intersections. There is slight recessing in the arcading and
                 a triangular form above the south front doorway, although, Clapham notes there is greater recessing and the use of triangular forms in the
                 arcading at Earl's Barton, Barton-on-Humber and Deerhurst. Pilaster strips, as at Colne Rogers in Gloucestershire, are used on the south front
                 corner, which are, unusually, buttress like, horizontal jambs are used on both inner doorways, as at Escomb and Odda's chapel, and there is an
                 asymmetry in the doorways along the axial line of the church. Unlike Earl's Barton, there are no herringbone networks along the walls. There is a
                 double splay window on the south front. Clapham dates the church to the early 10th century, the later Anglo-Saxon period, and after the
                 Carolingian period, (780-900).

(oo)          The Y-shape of the "Christ in Majesty" sculpture is typical of the Anglo-Saxon period.

(ooo)        The lintelled doorway is typically Anglo-Saxon, with the saddleback tower having the characteristic triangular form.         

(+)           According to George Zarnecki, a precursor of beak-head ornamentation developed in Norman art, noting the parallel grooves.

(++)         The parallel grooves suggest a relationship with the form at Deerhurst, further supporting the idea that Anglo-Norman sculpture was influenced by
                Anglo-Saxon art, Zarnecki mentions this connection in "English Romanesque Scupture, 1066-1140"
(+++)       There is a resemblance with the arch forms at Odda's chapel and Turkdean,  but the chancel arch could be Anglo-Norman, the star pattern and arch
                 is similar to those at Brewardine, see (*****).

(++++)     The cross cuts out a star pattern, similar to that at Brewardine, suggesting an Anglo-Saxon influence, see also (********), again there is a diagonal
                 relationship, parallel to the Cornish coast, and a further diagonal with the north west coast of France, passing through the Scilly Isles and the south of
                 Ireland, see also (++++++) here.

(+++++)    The pilaster strip in the north wall at Coln Rogers is mentioned in Clapham's "English Romanesque Architecture before the Conquest", noting that
                  they are usually terminated by a base block, which is absent here. The interior facing arches of the north and south walls, exhibit a typical use of jambs,
                  though the shape of the north arch is unusual. The jamb with respond in the exterior porch doorway is terminated by a base block, though the corner
                  capital is Norman, see (*****), the chancel jamb exhibits a beaded moulding, a Norman feature, similar to Mylor, see (********) and Cury. The
                 jambs of the interior south doorway are asymmetric, one being unusually short and possibly broken. The jambs and archway of the north door at
                 Brewardine are typically Anglo-Saxon. The 6-leaf pattern of the star designs might suggest that this form might occur with an even number of points in
                 Anglo-Saxon art. In even sided polygons, the opposite sides are parallel, in which case the method of harmonic variations variations doesn't work. For an
                 even number, one can instead consider bitangent degenerations with the tangent lines all passing through a point, in which case the tangent lines do not pair
                 into parallels, see also (*********).

(++++++) The use of jambs and a narrow archway at Cold Aston is Anglo-Saxon, see also (+++++), the star or snowflake pattern on the tympanum band might
                 be connected to the main Norman design of the church. The cross shaft has a braiding pattern, similar to the fragments at St. Oswald's Priory, see also
                (++++) here.            

(!)             Use of beakhead ornamentation occurs in the outer archway, alternating orders in the inner archway, as at Malmesbury Abbey.

(!!!!)          The tympanum and capitals are dated to about 1180 in Jerry Hibbert's leaflet on St. Peter's church, which agrees with Zarnecki's and the leaflet's
                  dating of the font. For more information on the volute capital, see (*******) here, but this is probably a late transitional version, (c1180; Zarnicki's
                  date, also in leaflet). The diaper pattern is typically Norman with intersecting diagonals, demonstrating the aesthetic of fragmentation. The details of
                  the font depict a square buckle, a spandrel between two arches, and the figure of Prudentia holding a staff with a cross. The spandrel form also
                  occurs in conjunction with Anglo-Saxon architecture, with a circular buckle of the same date appearing at Elkstone church, 1180 (Zarnecki), 
                  see (##).  

(!!)            Similar to the arch forms at Hailes Abbey, see (!!!).

(!!!)           The trefoil headed windows are similar to Hailes Abbey, while the interior lancet is typical of the period, the broader window has a slight apex, is
                  claimed to be a lancet, and is similar to early uses of the lancet form at Monreale, Sicily, see also (!) here. The pillar might be a development of the
                  Norman period, with a connection to water. The use of circles in a cross is typical of the later Geometric style in England, this could be an early
                  use of this idea, dating the Abbey to about 1240.
(*)             Belonging to the Transitional style of Norman architecture, arond 1170, the drum capital might be a new development, see (!!!) but the corner
                  volute capitals are copied from earlier forms, see  (*******)  here. The dragonforms on the west portal are of the grooved and non-grooved forms,
                  see (++).

(**)           Anglo-Saxon feature introduced into Norman archiecture by Robert of Jumieges in 1067, the triangular design dating from Lorsch abbey.
(***)         Possibly built as early as 1200.

(****)       According to "English Romanesque Scupture, 1066-1140", by Zarnecki, cushion capitals are Anglo-Norman but had already been used
                  in Anglo-Saxon buidings; one can observe the simlarity with earlier designs, such as at Odda's chapel, Gloucestershire. He argues that they were
                  introduced between 1066 and 1100, dating the crypt to 1089.

(*****)     In the same book, Zarnecki argues that corner capitals and tympana were introduced between 1100 and 1140, "The doorways often had carved
                  voussoirs, tympana, capitals and shafts, he dates this part of St. Stephen's church  to 1120. The detail of the column at Hereford Cathedral
                  resembling the carving at Daglingworth, and the star patterns at Brewardine, with their centralised geometries, again suggest an
                  Anglo-Saxon influence. Again, there  is a similar influence at Byton,  Zarnecki notes that these abstract patterns "so typical of some Anglo-Saxon
                  carvings, survived in many works that date from the late 11th or early 12th century". The Agnus Dei symbol is unusual in that the cross slants diagonally
                  rather than vertically, as in the Valviscolo cloisters, Italy, Kilpeck, Great Washbourne and Temple Guiting, suggesting a stronger Norman rather then
                 Cistercian influence.

(******)  This belongs to the period of Later Romanesque sculpture, 1140-1210, discussed in Zarnecki's  following book. He dates Shobdon to around 1140,
                 idenifying the columns as the first works of the Herefordshire School, the porticoe with the trefoil pattern is influenced by Anglo-Saxon designs, but is
                 Anglo-Norman. The columns at the Priory church are later works of the Herefordshire school, again there is a combination of Anglo-Saxon and
                 Norman motifs in the archway and column.

(*******) Compare with the design in the cloister at Salisbury Cathedral.
(********) The chevron pattern, with a beaded moulding along the diagonals, is a copy of the design at Cury, suggesting a relationship between the 2 locations.
                    The diagonals in the cross of the archway is also a Norman feature, similar to that at Byton and Egloskerry, with a connection to the symbol of the
                    Knight's Templar. The diagonal passes between these three churches, roughly parallel to the North coast of Cornwall.

(*********) The corner capitals in the south door at Brewardine are typically Norman, the 11-leaf pattern of the star designs in the tympanum suggests that this
                     form can occur with an odd or prime number of points in Norman art. In the case of curves with odd degree, one can use the method of harmonic
                     variations to investigate the notion of genus of a curve, see also (+++++) The Norman corner capitals at Cold Aston are of the volute type, see
                     (*******) here, but, unlike at Brewardine, the tympanum has star designs, with an even number of 4 points, set on a diagonal square. Both star
                     designs could be reminiscent of snowflakes. There is a cushion corner capital fragment at Alderton, see also (****), the star design has 8 points,
                     and is again set on a diagonal square, showing that the Normans used an even or odd number of points in such designs. One can observe narrow
                     arch forms and the use of a jamb in the column shaft at Evesham Abbey, dated to 1130. The trefoil shaped capital is different from the usual
                    Norman cushion capital design, which Zarnecki describes as Anglo-Norman, acknowledging the Anglo-Saxon influence, but further strengthens the
                    view that the trefoil is an Anglo-Saxon idea, and occurs before 1180.
(**********) The capital and arches are Anglo-Norman, with the use of the narrow circular arch, jambs in the pillar shafts and a striking resemblance to the base
                        of the font design at Ampney, see (####) here. The cluster capital at Stanway seems to be a development of the earlier Norman cushion capital, see
                       (****), while the scallop capitals at Broadway, Stanton and Aldsworth are another progression, in a further multiplication of forms, and belong to the
                        transitional style. The cushion capitals at Worcester, formed as the intersection of a hemisphere with a cube, are Anglo-Norman, as noted by Zarnecki,
                        with developments involving an embattled pattern, the use of grooves, further acknowleding the Anglo-Saxon influence, see (+) and (++), and use in a
                        corner. Zarnecki dates the volute capitals at Gloucester to 1089, but the cushion capitals there are composite developments of the single capital form,
                        used at Worcester, so, the Worcester crypt could have been built as early as 1084. Zarnecki claims that cushion capitals are used in Anglo-Saxon
                        architecture, but the only similar example I could find in Clapham, is at Worth, from the late 10th century, which is cubic and slightly curved at the
                        edges, but lacks the precise geometry found here. The trefoil  headed arches in St. Mary's chapel at Glastonbury Abbey are typical of the Early English
                        or Lancet period.  

(***********) The cushion capital at Great Rissington is clustered with grooves and scallops, a combination of the innovation at Worcester Cathedral crypt and linked
                          with Broadway, Stanton and Aldsworth. The volutes at Great Rissington are set on a drum capital, while the plain column must be a Norman copy of
                          the Anglo-Saxon original in the Anglo-Norman style. The three types of capital occur on three of the sides of the chancel. The gravestones at Great
                          Rissington are all decorated with swords. The capitals at Cornwell are scalloped, with the archway typical of the transitional Norman period, (c1160).
                          The font and capital at Bledington are both octagonal, with a similar transitional archform. This might show that the octagonal design was adopted later,
                          and the font belongs to the same period as the church itself. The archway and columns at Muchdewchurch are similar to at Great Rissington and must be
                          another Norman copy. As at Cornwell, the pointed archform at Stoke Orchard with the scalloped column is typical of the transitional Norman period.
                          Similarly, the pointed lancet archforms at Glastonbury Abbey suggest this was built about 1180, see also (**********).

(************). The clustered column is an Anglo-Norman development on the basic rectangular form and column used in Anglo-Saxon architecture, for example at
                             Odda's chapel.                          
         (#)         An extensive analysis of the linear style in England is given by Bony, noting the influence of Norman art. In the east window, one can see both the
                      aesthetic of fragmentation and the use of Y-tracery. In the north window, one can see linearity reflected in the use of the lancet form, but there is
                      also a combination with the use of trefoils, a feature of Early English designs, and influenced by Anglo-Saxon designs. 

     (##)         Zarnecki dates the boss in the chancel vault to 1180, it depicts a circular buckle with 2 animal heads and 8 points. The dragon head also has 4
                     points on either side of the mouth, the grooving suggestive of Anglo-Saxon art, see (++), but the points are also similar to those used in Norman
                     art, for example at Mylor, see (********) and (++++++) here. The position of the buckle suggests a further link with the capital, possibly
                     depicting an owl, the beak in the middle, on the right side of the main doorway, pointed to by the right hand of the father in the tympanum. 

      (\)           Now part of Sweden, but, at the time of construction, a Danish province, see Liber Census Daniae, often referred to as Kong Valdemar's Jorgebok.
      (\\)          The lunette feature is derived from early Carolingian examples, see (!!!!!) here.
      (\\\)         The circular designs from the font and in the pillar capitals are reminiscent of earlier Cistercian designs, for example at Byland and Whitby. The pointed
                     arch forms can also be seen at Rievaulx. It is an open question as to whether the first pointed vault, at Durham, is Cistercian. The capitals with circular
                     shafts at Llanthony Priory and Brecon Cathedral bear a striking resemblance to those at Grosmont church and might be from the same period, and
                     peculiar to Wales. The capital base bosses from Brecon Cathedral have a circular cap in the same style, the conjunction of the circular headed columns
                     with trefoil archform and quatrefoils dates this to about 1260, at the intersection of the lancet and geometric styles. 
     (\\\\)         The circular headed windows are of two types, the wider possibly originating from Conques (c1100), while the thinner seem to be
                     constructed by Walter de Lacy (c1100), with the style possibly originating in Carolingian designs, see (****) and (!!) here 
    (\\\\\)         The linear intersecting arch style at the base of the font is Norman, see (!!!!), but the use of jambs in the arch columns is Anglo-Saxon, so this belongs
                     to the Anglo-Norman style in Zarnecki's terminology. The green man symbol may originate in Ireland with illustrations from the Book of Kells.
    (\\\\\\)        The corner tower at Jumieges (c1067) is a development of some of the earlier Anglo-Saxon towers in Ireland, but now placed at the corner of a larger
                     structure, and with a conical turret. The ribbed vault at Caen is about 1120, before Saint Denis but after that of Durham Cathedral (c1115) and Avening
                     church (c1105), belonging to the Norman Gothic style in France, characterised by long wall tribunes and galleries. Bony cites the forms at Paray-le
                     Monial (c1110) as the earliest example of pointed arches, so scaffolding must have been involved in the construction at Durham.
    (\\\\\\\)       The use of lintels and narrow semi-circular arch forms at Clonmacnoise, Glendalough, where there is a connection with Reefert church, and Iniscealtra,
                     dogtooth with narrow semi-circular arch forms at Monasterboice, and dogtooth arch forms at Kildare, Cashel, Kilmacduagh, Kells and St. Doulagh's
                     church  are typical of Anglo-Saxon architecture in England, see for example (o),(oo) and (+)-(++++++). Thomas Bell in "An Essay on the Origin and
                     Progress of Gothic Architecture with Reference to Irish Round Towers" mentions the use of herringbone, pilasters and a narrow semi-circular archform
                     at St. Finian's church, Clonmacnoise, and also the use of pilasters at Kildare, see (++++++) above and (##) here , herringbone is also used in the arches
                     of the church near Monasterboice. Small square forms, as at Cashel and the top window of Scattery Island can be found in the towers at Deerhurst,
                     Gloucestershire, at Much Dewchurch and at Wembury in Devon, see ([]), ([][]), and ([][][]). Thomas Bell also mentions them in one of the adjoining
                     churches at Monasterboice. The quadrilateral forms, found at Monasterboice tower, Kells, Glendalough and St. Doulagh's church, have an aesthetic
                     similarity to established Anglo-Saxon forms, but I haven't found them in England, and they can be found in Ireland from an earlier date, see (!!!) here,
                     but they still belong to the Anglo-Saxon period. Bell dates St. Doulagh's church to 818, in a dispute with Ledwich, who dates it to 993, so, if Bell is
                     correct, this might confirm the previous argument. The rectangular forms of Clones, Devenish, Clonmacnoise (McCarthy's) (8 mentioned by Bell at the
                     apex, which he calls small square, but there are smaller, see above)  and Kilmacduagh have antecedents in the churches of St. Fechin, Fore, Ireland,
                     (early 7th C (Petrie)) and Escomb church, Durham (late 7th C (Clapham)), see (!!!) again  here The conjunction of these rectangular forms in England
                     might suggest this was an Anglo-Saxon innovation in Ireland. A wider circular archform with chevron moulding and an 8-point flower can be found at
                     Kildare, together with an embattled parapet wall, again suggesting a later Anglo-Norman addition to an original Anglo-Saxon design. The conical tops
                     at Clonmacnoise, Glendalough, Iniscealtra, Cashel, Kilmacduagh, Devenish, and, the tallest at Ardmore, can be found at Jumieges in France, see (\\\\\\),
                     but the triangular saddleback towers are also common in England, for example at Syde and Ampney, see (####) here, so it is a debatable issue as to
                     whether these were built before 1066, or replaced by the Anglo-Normans after 1067. The round tower at Kilossy is mentioned by Bell, noting the
                     unusual square base, this seems to be due to buttressing which was a later Norman innovation. He also mentions the lancet windows at Christchurch,
                     and some architectural features at Down Cathedral, which are similar in appearance to numerous examples in England from the Lancet (Early English)
                     and Perpendicular periods. The exterior vault at Timleague Abbey is pointed, in the style of the Lancet period, with the outer walkway having a possible
                     connection with an architectural innovation at Glasgow Cathedral, see (\\\\\\\\\). The height and shape is influenced by the Anglo-Saxon use of tall narrow
                     splay windows, for example at Aston Piper, see (####) here, the Church of Sons of Nessan, Ireland's Eye, and St. Ciaran's church, Glendalough, see
                     above. The battlements at Down may be derived from castle designs, possibly originating in Denmark.
(\\\\\\\\)          The fragment at Glastonbury Abbey is similar to a design at Valviscolo in Italy, after 1180, with the cross pointing vertically,but in the style of the Geometric

(\\\\\\\\\)         The exterior walkway at St. Kentigern's surrounds the nave and is copied at crypt level. The rectangular groundplan may be influenced by castles in Denmark,
                     and Scotland, for example at Asserbo and Kilchurn, see here